(Community-Acquired Pneumonia; CAP; Bronchopneumonia)
|Development of Pneumonia in the Air Sacs of the Lungs|
|The normal exchange of gases is interrupted by the build up of fluids.|
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- Community-acquired—from the community, such as a school, gym, or at work
- Nosocomial—in a hospital or healthcare setting
- Aspiration—happens when foreign matter is inhaled into the lungs, such as food, liquid, saliva, or vomit
- Infection from specific types of:
- Other specific germs
- Chemical exposure and irritation
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- Living in crowded living conditions, such as dormitories or nursing homes
- Alcohol or drug abuse
- Trouble swallowing or coughing
- Having certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or cystic fibrosis
- Sleep apnea
- Being on a ventilator
- Heart disease
- Weakened immune system
- Exposures to respiratory inhalants at work, such as:
- Vegetable dusts
- Chest pain
- Increased mucus production
- Fever and chills
- Trouble breathing
- Blood tests and/or cultures
- Sputum culture
- Urine tests
- A chest x-ray
- A lung ultrasound
- What caused the pneumonia
- Severity of symptoms
- Other factors, like your overall health
- Antibiotics—for pneumonia caused by bacteria
- Antifungal medications—for pneumonia caused by fungi
- Antiviral medications—for pneumonia caused viruses, such as influenza
- Over-the-counter medications to reduce fever and discomfort
- Vitamin C may be advised if you don't get enough in your diet
- Oxygen therapy may be needed in more severe cases
- Flu vaccine—pneumonia may be a complication of the flu for people at high risk of infection, especially aged 50 years and older
- Pneumococcal vaccine:
- All adults who are aged 65 years or older
- Adults of any age who are at high risk of infection or have a suppressed immune system
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how you can successfully quit. Smoke weakens the lungs' resistance to infection and increases recovery time.
- Avoid close contact with people who have the cold or flu.
- Wash your hands often, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick..
- Protect yourself on jobs that include chemicals or other lung irritants.
- Maintain good control of any chronic disease, such as asthma and diabetes.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org
American Lung Association http://www.lung.org
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
The Lung Association http://www.lung.ca
2014 Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/easy-to-read/index.html. Updated January 31, 2014. Accessed February 17, 2014.
Blasi F, Aliberti S, Pappalettera M, Tarsia P. 100 years of respiratory medicine: pneumonia. Respir Med. 2007;101(5):875-881.
Braunwald E, Harrison TR, Fauci AS, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill; 2008.
Carpenter CC, Andreoli TE, Griggs RC. Cecil Essentials of Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science; 2003.
De Roux A, Marcos MA, Garcia E, Mensa J, Ewig S, Lode H, Torres A. Viral community-acquired pneumonia in non-immunocompromised adults. Chest. 2004;125(4):1343-1351.
Explore pneumonia. National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu. Updated March 1, 2011. Accessed February 17, 2014.
How can pneumonia be prevented? National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/prevention.html. Updated March 1, 2011. Accessed February 17, 2014.
Niederman MS. Recent advances in community-acquired pneumonia inpatient and outpatient. Chest. 2007 April;4:1205-15.
Niederman MS. Review of treatment guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Med. 2004;117:Suppl 3A:51S-57S. Review.
Pneumonia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 14, 2013. Accessed February 17, 2014.
10/29/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hemila H, Louhiala P. Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(3):CD005532.
10/21/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hemilä H, Louhiala P. Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 8;8.
3/10/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Su VY, Liu CJ, et al. Sleep apnea and risk of pneumonia: a natoinwide population-based study. CMAJ. 2014 Mar 3.
6/17/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Reissig A, Copetti R, et al. Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow-up of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, multicenter diagnostic accuracy study. Chest. 2012 Oct;142(4):965-972.
- Reviewer: David L Horn, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 02/2014 -
- Update Date: 06/17/2014 -