- The bone may be fractured but stable, which is known as a simple fracture or a closed fracture.
- Bone fragments may be sticking through the skin, which is known as a compound fracture or an open fracture.
- Chip ( avulsion fracture )—A small piece of bone is broken away from the main bone and usually attached to a ligament or tendon.
- Compression—The bone is compressed together, such as vertebrae.
- Comminuted—The bone is in pieces.
- Greenstick—One side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent but not broken.
- Intra-articular—The joint is affected.
- Growth plate fracture —A child's developing tissue is fractured.
- Transverse—The bone is broken in a horizontal line that is perpendicular to the surface of the bone cortex.
- Oblique—The bone is broken in a line that is less than a 90° angle to the surface of the bone cortex.
- Spiral—The line of the fracture forms a spiral.
- Stress—A thin fracture line occurs due to overuse rather than a single traumatic incident.
|The Bones of the Body|
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- Increased age
- Decreased muscle mass
- Osteoporosis —decreased bone mass which weakens bones and affects both men and women
- Certain medication used to treat type 2 diabetes
- Accidents or violence
- Participation in sports
- Certain chronic diseases
- Child abuse
- Conditions that increase the risk of falls, such as nerve or muscle disorders
- Certain congenital bone conditions—rare
- Pain, often severe
- Instability of the area around the break
- Inability to use the limb or affected area normally
- Swelling or bruising
- Putting the pieces of bone together if necessary—may require anesthesia and/or surgery
- Keeping the pieces together while the bone heals itself
- A cast—may be used with or without surgery
- Metal pins across the bone with a frame holding them outside the bone—requires surgery
- A metal plate with screws—requires surgery
- Screws alone—requires surgery
- A rod down the middle of the bone—requires surgery
Healing and Rehabilitation
- Delayed union—It takes longer than usual to heal, but does heal.
- Nonunion—The bone does not heal and needs some special treatment.
- Infection—This is more likely to happen after an open fracture or surgery.
- Nerve or artery damage—This usually occurs as a result of severe trauma.
- Compartment syndrome—Severe swelling in the spaces of the limbs that causes damage to body tissues.
- Late arthritis—This may happen if the surface of a joint is badly damaged.
- Avoid putting yourself at risk for an accident or other trauma to the bone.
- Do weight-bearing exercise regularly to build and maintain strong bones.
- Do strengthening exercises regularly to build strong muscles and prevent falls.
- Patients with osteoporosis may benefit from bisphosphonate medications.
- Wear protective equipment when playing sports.
- Use proper fitness techniques.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.aaos.org
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine http://www.sportsmed.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org
Fractures: an overview. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00139 . Updated October 2012. Accessed October 9, 2013.
Gruntmanis U. Male osteoporosis: deadly, but ignored. Am J Med Sci. 2007;333(2):85-92.
McCarus DC. Fracture prevention in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a review of treatment options. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2006;61(1):39-50.
Rockwood CA, Green DP. Fractures in Adults. Vol 4. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins; 1994.
1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009;180:32-39. Epub 2008 Dec 10.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -