- Acute glomerulonephritis begins suddenly.
- Chronic glomerulonephritis develops gradually over several years.
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- Streptococcal infection of the throat known as strep throat
- Streptococcal infection of the skin known as impetigo
- Hereditary causes
- Immune diseases, such as lupus
- Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes
- Vasculitis, which is also known as inflammation of the blood vessels
- Viruses, such as HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus
- Endocarditis, which is an infection of the valves of the heart
- Drugs and toxins
- Family history of glomerulonephritis
- The presence of a known cause of glomerulonephritis
- Exposure to a cause
- High blood pressure
- Blood in urine
- Foamy appearance of urine
- Less frequent urination
- Swelling in the morning, especially in the face, feet, hands, and abdomen
- Feeling tired
- Dry, itchy skin
- Nausea and vomiting
- Poor appetite
- Muscle cramps at night
- Swelling of the face, feet, hands, or abdomen
- Blood tests
- Kidney biopsy
- Diuretics to reduce fluid retention
- Medications to suppress the immune system such as steroids
- ACE inhibitors to control blood pressure and protein excretion
- Restrict salt and water intake.
- Restrict intake of potassium, phosphorous, and magnesium.
- Cut down on protein in the diet.
- Maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise.
- Take calcium supplements.
Dialysis and Transplant
- See a doctor promptly if you have a sore throat that might be due to strep.
- To reduce the risk of getting viral infections, including HIV, use safe sex practices and avoid intravenous drug use.
- If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, see your doctor about managing these conditions.
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov
HealthLink BC http://www.healthlinkbc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Glomerulonephritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 1, 2010. Accessed July 12, 2013.
Glomerulonephritis. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/glomerul.cfm. Accessed July 12, 2013.